Students for a Democratic Society

Students for a Democratic Society

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) est une organisation étudiante américaine qui s'est inscrit dans le mouvement étudiant de contestation des années 1960. Mouvement emblématique de la « New Left », qui refusait à la fois la soumission au bloc de l'Est et l'anticommunisme traditionnel de la gauche libérale américaine, cette organisation se développa rapidement à partir de 1965 avant de prononcer sa dissolution lors de sa dernière convention en 1969.

La SDS a fédéré le radicalisme étudiant dans le contexte de l'opposition à la guerre du Viêt Nam et a influencé profondément l'ensemble des organisations étudiantes qui lui ont succédé. Les notions de démocratie participative et d'action directe, ainsi que sa manière de s'organiser se retrouvent peu ou prou dans les différents groupes d'activisme étudiant au niveau national. Toutefois, aucune organisation étudiante de gauche n'a jamais atteint l'envergure de la SDS (100 000 membres en novembre 1968, quelques mois après la Convention nationale du Parti démocrate de 1968 (en) à Chicago) ni n'a duré aussi longtemps.

Sommaire

Convention de juin 1969

Effectifs du SDS
Date Nombre de membres Nombre de sections
Juin 1964 3 000[1]
Juin 1966 15 000[1]
automne 1967 30 000[2] 250 sections[2]
novembre 1968 100 000[2] 350 à 400[2]

Depuis quelques années, le très organisé Progressive Labor (en) (PL, marxiste-léniniste et qui considère que seule la classe ouvrière est révolutionnaire) fait de l'entrisme au sein du mouvement, accroissant ainsi des tensions qui conduisent à la dissolution de l'organisation lors de la convention de 1969.

La majorité forme le Revolutionary Youth Movement (RYM), qui soutient l'alliance avec les Black Panthers et de façon générale le mouvement afro-américain au niveau national, et avec les mouvements de libération nationale et tiers-mondiste à l'international[3], tandis qu'une minorité, menée par le Progressive Labor (en) forme la Worker Student Alliance (en) qui prône l'immersion des étudiants au cœur des luttes ouvrières, refusant la question raciale au nom d'une conception orthodoxe de la lutte des classes[3] et qualifiant les Black Panthers de parti « bourgeois » et « réactionnaire »[4]. Les futurs membres du Weathermen participent au RYM, ironisant sur le refus du PL de soutenir le Viêt-cong d'un côté, les Black Panthers de l'autre. À ses débuts, le Weathermen soutient ainsi à la fois le mouvement afro-américain et les mouvements anti-colonialistes, tout en étant composé exclusivement de Blancs, issus pour la plupart de la bourgeoisie libérale de la côte est (parfois d'origine juive, comme David Gilbert (en)), à l'exception d'un américano-asiatique, Shin'ya Ono[5].

Notes et références

  1. a et b Dan Berger, Weather Underground. Histoire explosive du plus célèbre groupe radical américain, éd. L'Echappée, 2010, p. 54 (version originale: Outlaws of America: The Weather Underground and the Politics of Solidarity, Oakland: AK Press (en), 2006)
  2. a, b, c et d Dan Berger, Weather Underground. Histoire explosive du plus célèbre groupe radical américain, éd. L'Echappée, 2010, p. 92. Cite Max Elbaum, Revolution in the Air: Sixties Radicals turn to Lenin, Che and Mao, Londres, éd. Verso, 2002, p.69
  3. a et b Dan Berger, Weather Underground. Histoire explosive du plus célèbre groupe radical américain, éd. L'Echappée, 2010, chap. IV, p. 126 (version originale: Outlaws of America: The Weather Underground and the Politics of Solidarity, Oakland: AK Press (en), 2006)
  4. Dan Berger, op. cit., p. 130
  5. Dan Berger, op. cit., p. 154

Annexes

Article connexe

Liens externes

Bibliographie

Archives

Articles

Études

  • Alan Adelson, SDS, New York, Charles Scribener's Sons, 1972 (ISBN 0-6841-2393-2).
  • Heather Frost, An Interracial Movement of the Poor: Community Organizing and the New Left in the 1960s, New York: New York University press, 2001 (ISBN 0-8147-2697-6).
  • Louis Heath (dir), Vandals in the Bomb Factory: The History and Literature of the Students for a Democratic Society, Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976 (ISBN 0-8108-0890-0).
  • Fred Halstead, Out Now!: A Participant's Account of the Movement in the United States Against the Vietnam War, Anchor Foundation, Reprint edition, 1978 (ISBN 0-9134-6047-8).
  • Rebecca E. Klatch, A Generation Divided: The New Left, the New Right, and the 1960s, Berkeley : University of California Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-5202-1714-4).
  • Robert Pardun, Prairie Radical: A Journey Through the Sixties, Shire Press, 2001 (ISBN 0-9188-2820-1).
  • Kirkpatrick Sale, SDS, New York : Random House, 1973 (ISBN 0-3944-7889-4).

Publications du SDS

  • Davidson, Carl. Toward a Student Syndicalist Movement or University Reform Revisited. Chicago: Students for a Democratic Society. ca. 1967. Mimeographed. 7 p.
  • Gilbert, David and David Loud. U. S. Imperialism. Chicago: Students for a Democratic Society, 1968. Wraps. 33 p.
  • Haber, Al and Dick Flacks. Peace, Power and the University: Prepared for Students for a Democratic Society and the Peace Research and Education Project.Ann Arbor: Peace Research and Education Project, 1963. Mimeographed. 12 p..
  • James, Mike. Getting Ready for the Firing Line: Join Community Union. Chicago: Students for a Democratic Society, March 1968. Stapled softcover. 8p. Photos by Nancy Hollander, Tom Malear of the Chicago Film Coop, Todd Gitlin & Les Jordan, SCEF. Reprinted from "The Activist," Spring 1967. Introduction for this pamphlet by Mike James.
  • Lemisch, Jessie. Towards a Democratic History. Ann Arbor & Chicago: Radical Education Project/Students for a Democratic Society, (1967). Radical Education Project Occasional Paper. 8 p.
  • Lynd, Staughton. The New Radicals and "Participatory Democracy". Chicago: Students for a Democratic Society, 1965. 10 p.
  • Oglesby, Carl. The Speech Given by Carl Oglesby, President, Students for a Democratic Society, at the Nov. 27, 1965 March on Washington to End the War in Vietnam. Chicago: Students for a Democratic Society, ca. 1965. 8 1/2 x 11 in. Mimeographed. 8 p.
  • Olinick, Michael. The Campus Press. Distributed by Students for a Democratic Society for the Liberal Study Group, National Student Association, 1962. 13 p.
  • Oppenheimer, Martin. Alienation or Participation: The Sociology of Participatory Democracy. n.p.: Students of a Democratic Society (S.D.S.), 1966. 7 pages. 1st edition. Stapled booklet.
  • Students For A Democratic Society [S.D.S.]. Fight Racism! Boston: Students for a Democratic Society, n.d. [1969]. 28pp. 1st edition. Stapled softcover.
  • Students for a Democratic Society. New Left Notes. Chicago. [?] Vol. 1 # 1 1965 [?] - Vol. 4 # 31 October 2, 1969.
  • Students for a Democratic Society [Progressive Labor]. SDS New Left Notes, Vol. 5, No. 15, July 6, 1970 - [?]. Boston, 1970.

Publications du gouvernement des États-Unis

  • U.S. House of Representatives. Investigation of Students for a Democratic Society, Part 2 (Kent State University): Hearings Before the Committee on Internal Security, House of Representatives; 91st Congress, 2nd Session, June 24 and 25, 1969. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969.
  • U.S. House of Representatives. Investigation of Students for a Democratic Society, Part 3-A (George Washington University); Hearings Before the Committee on Internal Security, House of Representatives; 91st Congress, 2nd Session, July 22, 1969. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969.
  • U.S. House of Representatives. Student Views Toward U.S. Policy in Southeast Asia; Hearings Before an Ad Hoc Committee of Members of the House of Representatives; 91st Congress, 2nd Session, July 22, 1969. Washington: U.S. Government Printng Office, 1969.
  • U.S. President. Commission on Campus Unrest. Report. On appelle communément cette publication le Rapport Scranton, sorti en 1970.



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